信德文化研究所主页

徐以骅 复旦大学国际政治系

摘要:

研究中国基督教史的基础性知识之一,就是关于该领域研究的多数“游戏规则”、叙事方式和研究术语,都是由西方学者所设定的。不仅分析性的观察,如在华差会的三次权力移交、中美新教权力建制、李提摩太路线与戴德生路线之争、保守主义与现代主义之争等,都源自西方;而且观察性的分析,如“冲击—反应模式”,“传统—现代模式”、文化帝国主义、基督教适应中国社会的本土、自立、本色三种路线,乃至“以人为本的研究路径”等,也主要出自西方学者。因此,虽然去西方化的研究路径是由西方学者首先提出的,但这却是一种艰巨的、很可能是西方学者所难以胜任的研究日程。

“正定天主堂惨案”以及文致和主教等外籍天主教神职人员为中国人民捐躯的事迹并非偶然,而是整个中国人民抗日战争史的一部分。在此期间中国基督宗教所呈现的,不仅有不畏强暴的文致和主教及其下属、在南京大屠杀中被称为“人间地狱中的守护天使”的西方基督教传教士、在上海建立南市难民营(饶家驹安全区)的法国神父饶家驹等著名个案,而且有不计其数、默默无闻,但同样与中国人民同甘共苦乃至浴血奋战的中外基督教徒的英勇事迹。抗日战争时期基督教会的总体表现,是中国基督宗教历史上的一大亮点。

从中国基督宗教历史本身来看,在20世纪初到50年代的半个世纪的历史进程中,基督宗教在较大程度上与中国人民和社会进步事业相结合,曾先后发生过三次。第一次重大“结合”是在辛亥革命前后,当时的革命组织中就有不少基督徒;第二次重大“结合”发生在抗日战争期间,此期间基督教会可以说与中国人民的进步(抗战)事业发生了更加全面和整体性的结合。第三次重大“结合”发生在20世纪50年代初。与前二次不同,50年代初 “三自爱国运动”和“反帝爱国运动”,不仅使基督教会和天主教会在组织机构和经济上在中国自主自办自养的基础上得以重建,而且使基督教会真正成为社会主义革命和建设的一个重要组成部分。中国基督教会经此重大变局,已经完全成为中国人民的社会团体。

本文即从上述“三次重大结合”,来审视纪念“正定天主堂惨案”对中国基督教史研究的意义。

The Significance of the Zheng-ding Catholic Church Massacre To the Study of Christianity in China

Prof. Xu Yihua  Department of International Politics, Center for the Study of Religion and International Relations, Fudan  University

Abstract:It is well known that most of the “rules of game,” methods of narratives and terminologies in the study of Christianity in China have been set up by Western missionaries and scholars. Not only those analytical observations, such as the three devolutions of power, Sino-Western Protestant establishment, opposing evangelical lines exemplified by Timothy Richard and Hudson Taylor, but also those observational analyses, such as the impact-response model, tradition-modernity model, cultural imperialism, the three different types of Christian movements represented by the independent, native and indigenized churches respectively, all have originated from the West. Therefore the de-westernization of the study of Chinese Christianity, an issue raised by Western scholars themselves, seems to be an extremely difficult research agenda. 
“The Zheng-ding Catholic Church Massacre” was not an isolated case of sacrifice by Bishop Frans Schraven and 8 other Western clergy, but a cruel and heroic episode of the War of Assistance Against Japan. What Christian churches (both Protestant and Catholic churches) presented and contributed during the War, were not only those famous Western missionaries such as Bishop Frans Schraven and his subordinates, the Western missionaries who protected the Chinese refugees during the Nanking Massacre, and the French Jesuit priest Robert Jacquinot de Besange who established a security zone for refugees (La Zone Jacquinot) in Shanghai, but also numerous and often unknown Chinese and Western Christians who suffered together with the Chinese and even devoted their lives to the war cause of the Chinese people. The overall performance of the Christian churches during the War of Assistance Against Japan is a shining point in the history of Christianity in China.
From the perspective of the history of Christianity in China in the first half of the 20th century, we have witnessed three major congruencies of interests between the Christian churches and the progressive causes of the Chinese people. The first major congruence occurred around the time of the Revolution of 1911, during which the Christians and Christian organizations played a leading role. The Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s trigged the second major congruence, during which the Christian churches became almost entirely united with the resistance cause of the Chinese people. The third major congruence refers to the “Three-self Patriotic Movement” of the Protestant churches and “Anti-Imperial Patriotic Movement” of the Catholic Church in China in the early 1950s. These movements have made both the Protestant churches and the Catholic Church in China to become entirely Chinese social organizations.
This paper attempts to reexamine “the Zheng-ding Catholic Church Massacre” from this three-congruence analytical framework, and the significance of this tragic incident to the study of Christianity in China.

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