2021-10-28 09:00:08 作者：天瓯智库 来源：信德网
意大利的西方修道院 Carlo Marino摄
本笃会准则由努西亚的圣本笃（公元 480-547 年）于 6 世纪发明，其精神概括为格言：“平和”和传统的“祈祷和工作”，修道院提供了特别人性化的设施给生病的修士和修女，这种准则有时也适用于在家的平信徒，以及来自团体以外的客人。关于如何保持和恢复健康的关键医学原则被吸收到修道院的生活方式中，尤其体现在饮食调节的实践中，人们认为通过调节饮食可以确保人体内适当的体液平衡来预防疾病。因此，保持身体健康在修道院团体中很重要，这表明，与人们对于中世纪宗教的许多传统印象相反，修士和修女并没有忽视他们的身体。
古代药店草药容器 Carlo Marino摄
另一方面，中世纪医学，特别是在中世纪后半期（公元 1100 至 1500 年 ，中国的元明时期），成为正式的理论知识体系并在大学中制度化。中世纪医学将疾病归咎于罪恶行为，而不是自然原因，疾病只与罪行有关是相当普遍的观点，即人类罹患疾病是因为从上帝之国堕入世俗的结果。中世纪医学还认识到疾病会在人与人之间传播，某些生活方式可能会导致健康不佳，而且有些人会比别人更容易得病。
希腊医学基础来自一份文集，今天称之为《希波克拉底文集》。《希波克拉底文集》体现在现代医学中，以“希波克拉底誓言”或“不做害人之事（Do No Harm）”最为著名。
西方古代药店 Carlo Marino摄
希波克拉底的医学知识被记录在《希波克拉底文集》中，因此医生被要求有文化。关于饮食、手术和药物的知识构成了医学学习的基础，罗马帝国时期的希腊医生、哲学家盖伦（公元 129-216 年）基于这些写出了自己的著作。
药柜 Carlo Marino摄
位于意大利南部城市萨勒诺的第勒尼安海湾的萨勒诺医学院（建于公元 9 世纪），在其附近的蒙特卡西诺修道院里，从希腊语和阿拉伯语翻译而来的世界医学文献一应俱全 。萨勒尼坦的大师们逐渐建立了一套标准，被称为医学技艺或小技艺，成为几个世纪以来欧洲医学教育的基础。
Similarity between Medical knowledge in western Monasteries
and Traditional Chinese Medicine
Middle Ages in Europe corresponds to the period of time between the Northern and Southern dynasties and Ming Dynasties in China.
The origins of traditional Chinese medicine can be traced to Shen Nong Shi, a mythological figure from about 5,000 years ago and is considered the third oldest form of medicine and second most used medical system next to Western medicine. Its philosophy is rooted in the ancient philosophy of Taoism.
Chinese medicine views the body and further, the whole person, as a unified organic whole. Spiritual, mental, emotional and physical aspects are all seen as interrelated and interdependent. This perhaps explains why some people see Chinese Medicine as a holistic therapy. On the other side, the western doctor observes the facts before him and uses the current physiological theories to explain them. He separates the various systems and organs of the body and delves deeper and deeper into the particles that comprise matter.
The first Christian contacts with China were forged by the monks of the Eastern Church of Syria in the seventh century, under the Tang dynasty. The Chinese gave their faith the name ‘Jingjao’, ‘religion of light’.
Until the ninth century these monks were able to found monasteries and communities. All trace of them subsequently disappeared. The monastic orders of the Latin Church played no part in the first missionary encounters, and it was not until the end of the nineteenth century that they arrived in the Empire of the Centre.
The fall of the Roman Empire 476 A.D., at the time of Northern and Southern dynasties (Chinese: 南北朝; pinyin: Nán-Běi Cháo) was the first steps of Monasteries in Europe.
Monasteries were among the most important sites for the care of the sick and the dissemination of medical knowledge and the medical preoccupations of monastic communities reflect the fundamental Christian duty of visiting the sick, they also resulted from the self-contained character of these communities and their role as centers of learning.
From the invention of the Benedictine Rule, written by Benedict of Nursia (480-547 AD) in the sixth century, whose spirit is summed up in the motto: "peace" and the traditional "pray and work", monasteries offered specially personalized facilities to sick monks and nuns, and such provision was sometimes extended to resident lay people, as well as to guests from outside the community. Key medical principles about how to maintain and restore health were assimilated into the monastic way of life, shown particularly in the practice of the regulation of the diet, which was understood to prevent ill health by ensuring the proper humoral balance within a person’s body. Physical health, therefore, was important in monastic communities, indicating that, in contrast to much historical thinking about medieval religious, monks and nuns did not repudiate their bodies.
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of pseudoscientific ideas from antiquity. In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based essentially upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Medieval medicine is widely misinterpreted, thought of as a uniform attitude composed of placing hopes in the church and God to heal all sicknesses, while sickness itself exists as a product of destiny, sin, and astral influences as physical causes.
On the other hand, medieval medicine, especially in the second half of the medieval period (c. 1100–1500 AD- Yuan and Ming Dynasties in China), became a formal body of theoretical knowledge and was institutionalized in the universities. Medieval medicine attributed illnesses, and disease, not to sinful behaviour, but to natural causes, and sin was only connected to illness in a more general sense of the view that disease manifested in humanity as a result of its fallen state from God. Medieval medicine also recognized that illnesses spread from person to person, that certain lifestyles may cause ill health, and some people have a greater inclination towards bad health than others.
The Western medical tradition goes back directly to the early Greek civilization, northeastern Mediterranean civilization, much like the foundation of all of Western society. The Greeks certainly laid the foundation for Western medical practice but much more of Western medicine can be traced to the Middle East, Germanic, and Celtic cultures.
The Greek medical foundation comes from a collection of writings known today as the Hippocratic Corpus. Remnants of the Hippocratic Corpus survive in modern medicine in forms like the "Hippocratic Oath" as in to "Do No Harm".
The Hippocratic Corpus, popularly attributed to an ancient Greek medical practitioner known as Hippocrates, who lived at the times of the Warring States period (simplified Chinese: 战国时代 ) laid out the basic approach to health care. Greek philosophers viewed the human body as a system that reflects the workings of nature and Hippocrates applied this belief to medicine. The body, as a reflection of natural forces, contained four elemental properties expressed to the Greeks as the four humors. The humors represented fire, air, earth and water through the properties of hot, cold, dry and moist, respectively. Health in the human body relied on keeping these humors in balance within each person.
Traditional Chinese Medicine relies on the theory of five elements — fire, earth, metal, water, and wood — to explain how the body works and guide treatment; these elements correspond to particular organs and tissues in the body and describe the physiological activities and pathological changes that occur.
Maintaining the balance of humors within a patient occurred in several ways. An initial examination took place as standard for a physician to properly evaluate the patient. The patient's home climate, their normal diet, and astrological charts were regarded during a consultation. The heavens influenced each person in different ways by influencing elements connected to certain humors, important information in reaching a diagnosis. After the examination, the physician could determine which humor was unbalanced in the patient and prescribe a new diet to restore that balance. Diet included not only food to eat or avoid but also an exercise regimen and medication. The goal is to treat the underlying disharmony and restore balance to the body, and improve a patient’s overall well-being rather than alleviate symptoms.
Hippocratic medicine was written down within the Hippocratic Corpus, therefore medical practitioners were required to be literate. The combination of knowledge in diet, surgery, and medication moulded the foundation of medical learning upon which Galen (129-216 AD), Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire,(Han Dynasty in China, would later build upon with his own works.
Some of the medicine in the Western Middle Ages had its roots in pagan and folk practices. This influence was emphasized by the interaction between Christian theologians who adopted aspects of pagan and folk practices and registered them in their own works. The practices adopted by Christian medical practitioners, and their attitudes toward pagan and folk traditions, reflected an understanding of these practices, especially humoralism and herbalism. In China herbal products have been utilized by traditional medicine for many medical problems, including stroke, heart disease, mental disorders, and respiratory diseases (such as bronchitis and the common cold).
The practice of medicine in the western Middle Ages was empirical and pragmatic. It concentrated primarily on curing disease rather than determining the cause of diseases. Often it was believed the cause of disease was supernatural. However, secular approaches to curing diseases existed. People in the Middle Ages understood medicine by adopting the ancient Greek medical theory of humors. Since it was clear that the fertility of the earth depended on the proper balance of the elements, it followed that the same was true for the body, within which the various humors had to be in balance.
This approach greatly affected medical theory throughout the Middle Ages. Herbs were commonly used in ointments and drinks to treat a range of maladies. The particular herbs used depended largely on the local culture and often had roots in pre-Christian religion. The success of herbal remedies was often ascribed to their action upon the humours within the body. For example, skullcap seeds (used as a headache remedy) can appear to look like miniature skulls; and the white spotted leaves of lungwort (used for tuberculosis) bear a similarity to the lungs of a diseased patient. A large number of such resemblances were believed to exist.
Many monasteries developed herb gardens for use in the production of herbal cures, and these remained a part of folk medicine, as well as being used by some professional physicians and books of herbal remedies were produced.
Folk medicine of the Middle Ages dealt with the use of herbal remedies for ailments. The practice of keeping physic gardens abounding with various herbs with medicinal properties was influenced by the gardens of Roman antiquity. Many early medieval manuscripts have been noted for containing practical descriptions for the use of herbal remedies.
Monasteries later became centres of medical practice in the Middle Ages, and carried on the tradition of maintaining medicinal gardens. These gardens became specialized and capable of maintaining plants from the Southern Hemisphere as well as maintaining plants during winter.
Hildegard of Bingen (1098- 1179 AD), at the time of Emperor Yingzong of Song, the fifth emperor of the Song dynasty of China, was an example of a medieval medical practitioner who, while educated in classical Greek medicine, also utilized folk medicine remedies. Her understanding of the plant based medicines informed her commentary on the humors of the body and the remedies she described in her medical text were influenced by her familiarity with folk treatments of disease. In the rural society of Hildegard's time, much of the medical care was provided by women, along with their other domestic duties. Kitchens were stocked with herbs and other substances required in folk remedies for many ailments.
The understanding of nature could inform medical treatment of the body for Hildegard but she maintained the belief that the root of disease was a compromised relationship between a person and God. Many parallels between pagan and Christian ideas about disease existed during the early Middle Ages. Christian views of disease differed from those held by pagans because of a fundamental difference in belief: Christians' belief in a personal relationship with God greatly influenced their views on medicine.
Evidence of pagan influence on emerging Christian medical practice was provided by many renowned early Christian thinkers. The classical idea of the physician as a selfless servant who had to endure unpleasant tasks and provide necessary, often painful treatment was of great influence on early Christian practitioners. The metaphor was not lost on Christians who viewed Christ as the ultimate physician. Pagan philosophy had previously held that the pursuit of virtue should not be secondary to bodily concerns.
Similarly, Christians felt that, while caring for the body was important, it was second to spiritual pursuits. The relationship between faith and the bodies ailments explains why most medieval medical practice was performed by Christian monks.
Monasteries developed not only as spiritual centers, but also centers of intellectual learning and medical practice. Locations of the monasteries were secluded and designed to be self-sufficient, which required the monastic inhabitants to produce their own food and also care for their sick. Prior to the development of hospitals, people from the surrounding towns looked to the monasteries for help with their sick.
A combination of both spiritual and natural healing was used to treat the sick. Herbal remedies, known as Herbals, along with prayer and other religious rituals were used in treatment by the monks and nuns of the monasteries. Herbs were seen by the monks and nuns as one of God’s creations for the natural aid that contributed to the spiritual healing of the sick individual. An herbal textual tradition also developed in the medieval monasteries.
At Salerno Medical School, on the Tyrrhenian Sea in the south Italian city of Salerno in Southern Italy, in the 9th century AD, Tang dynasty in China, medical texts from the Greek and the Arab world were readily available, translated from the Greek and Arabic at the nearby monastic centre of Monte Cassino. The Salernitan masters gradually established a canon of writings, known as the art of medicine or little art, which became the basis of European medical education for several centuries.